Chikumi 28, 2024

Chii chinonzi bioreactor? Zvese zvaunoda kuziva

Kana wakambozvibvunza kuti mimwe mishonga, chikafu kana kunyange biofuel zvinogadzirwa sei, mhinduro iri muchidimbu chemudziyo unonzi bioreactor. Muchinyorwa chino tinotsanangura nemashoko ari nyore zvese zvaunoda kuziva nezve bioreactors. Kuti kana mumwe munhu akubvunza "Chii chinonzi bioreactor?", Unogona kupindura zviri nyore.

Chii chinonzi bioreactor?

A bioreactor mudziyo kana mudziyo umo masero kana tupukanana tunokura pasi pemamiriro akadzorwa kugadzira zvimwe zvinhu. Zvinhu izvi zvinogona kubva kumishonga, senge mishonga inorwisa mabhakitiriya nejekiseni, kusvika kune zvekudya zvakaita seyogati kana doro, uye kunyange mafuta senge ethanol.

Iyi michina yakakosha kune yemazuva ano biotech. Vanopa nharaunda inodzorwa umo maseru kana tupukanana tunogona kukura uye kugadzira zvigadzirwa zvinodikanwa nemazvo. Kugona kudzora madhirigi akadai setembiricha, pH, kugadzika kwechikafu uye huwandu hweokisijeni inobvumira kugadzirwa uye mhando yezvigadzirwa zvebiological kuti zvigadziriswe.

Nhoroondo uye evolution

Nhoroondo ye bioreactors inodzokera kumashure ekare nekuvirisa, yaishandiswa kugadzira chingwa, doro newaini. Midziyo yekutanga yaingove midziyo yevhu yaishandiswa nevanhu vakadai semaGiriki nevaRoma kuvirisa chikafu mumamiriro eanaerobic.

Muzana ramakore rechi20, mabioreactors emazuva ano akatanga kukura nekugadzirwa kwemaindasitiri kwepenicillin mukati meHondo Yenyika II. Izvi zvakaratidza kubudirira kukuru, zvichibvumira kugadzirwa kukuru kwe mishonga uye zvimwe zvigadzirwa zvebiotechnological.

Types

Kune akasiyana marudzi ebioreactors akagadzirirwa akasiyana maapplication uye sero tsika.

  1. Kukurudzirwa Tank: Aya ndiwo anonyanya kuzivikanwa uye ane a tank ine agitation system inosanganisa zviri mukati kuti ive nechokwadi chekugoverwa kwezvinovaka muviri uye oxygen.
  2. Photobioreactors (PBR): Batanidza mwenje sosi, ingave yakasikwa kana yekugadzira, kukura zvipenyu zvefototrophic senge cyanobacteria, algae kana moss zvinomera. Zvisikwa izvi zvinoshandisa chiedza kuburikidza nephotosynthesis sechitubu chesimba.
  3. Kuchenesa mvura: Shandisa inert midhiya ine yakakwira nzvimbo yekukura kwebiofilm kana aeration masisitimu kugadzira yakagadziriswa sludge, kuderedza biochemical oxygen kudiwa (BOD) yemvura ine tsvina.
  4. Specialized tissue: Yakagadzirwa kuti ikure maseru uye matishu anoda rutsigiro rwechimiro. Iwo anoshandiswa kugadzirazve zvimiro zvenhengo murabhoritari, zvinosanganisira moyo, tsandanyama, ligament uye cancer tishu modhi.

Zvikamu zvikuru zvebioreactor

Kuti unzwisise kuti bioreactor inoshanda sei, zvakakosha kuziva zvikamu zvayo zvikuru:

  1. Vessel: Chigaba chinokura maseru kana tupukanana. Vanogona kugadzirwa nesimbi isina tsvina, borosilicate girazi uye kamwe-kushandisa.
  2. Stiring system: Muchina wekusanganisa zviri mukati meiyo bioreactor, kuve nechokwadi chekugovaniswa kwezvinovaka muviri uye oksijeni.
  3. Kudzora masisitimu: Zvishandiso zvekutarisa uye kugadzirisa ma parameter akadai setembiricha, pH, yakanyungudika okisijeni uye kudya kunovaka muviri.
  4. Kudyisa uye kubvisa zvirongwa: Zvishandiso zvekuwedzera zvinovaka muviri uye kubvisa zvinoraswa, kuchengetedza iyo yakakwana nharaunda yekukura kwesero.

Iyo bioreactor inoshanda sei?

Kuti unzwisise kuti inoshanda sei, fungidzira yakakura tank uko ma microorganisms akadai sebhakitiriya, mbiriso, chirimwa nemasero emhuka anoiswa. Aya ma microorganisms anoda mamwe mamiriro kuti akure uye abudise zvatinoda. Apa ndipo panopinda bioreactor, sezvainopa:

  1. Nutrients: Chikafu chakakosha chezvipembenene, zvakaita seshuga, amino acids uye mavhitamini.
  2. Oxygen: Zvinodiwa kuti mamwe ma microorganisms akwanise kufema. Mune aerobic bioreactors, okisijeni inopihwa nekupupuma kana kubvongodza.
  3. Kutya: Nzvimbo inodziya, yakagadzikana, inodzorwa nekudziya kana kutonhora masisitimu.
  4. pH: Chiyero chakakodzera che acidity kana alkalinity, inogadziriswa nekuwedzera kweasidhi kana mabhesi.
  5. Kushungurudzika: Kufambisa kuchengetedza zvese zvakasanganiswa zvakanaka uye kuona kuti tupukanana tunokwanisa kuwana chikafu uye oxygen.

Zvese izvi zvinhu zvinotariswa uye kugadziridzwa kuti ive nechokwadi chekuti ma microorganisms ari mumamiriro akakwana ekukura nekugadzirwa.

Zvishandiso zvebioreactors

Bioreactors vane akawanda maapplication mumaindasitiri akasiyana, pakati pavo:

  1. Pharmaceutical industry: kugadzirwa kwemishonga inorwisa mabhakitiriya, majekiseni nemimwe mishonga yebiology. Semuenzaniso, kugadzirwa kwe insulin uchishandisa recombinant cell tsika.
  2. Chikafu uye chinwiwa: Kuviriswa kwezvigadzirwa zvakaita sedoro, waini, yoghuti uye chizi. Bioreactors inobvumira inodzorwa uye inoshanda kugadzirwa kwezvinhu izvi.
  3. Maindasitiri biotechnology: Kugadzirwa kwema enzymes uye mapuroteni ekushandisa kwakasiyana, senge detergents, machira uye chikafu.
  4. simba: Kugadzirwa kwemabiofuel akadai se ethanol uye biodiesel kubva kubiomass. MaBioreactors anobvumira kushandurwa kwezvinhu zvakasikwa kuita mafuta anogona kudzokororwa.
  5. Kuchenesa mvura: Kushandisa tupukanana kuputsa uye kubvisa zvinosvibisa kubva mumarara.

Innovations uye ramangwana re bioreactors

Tsvagiridzo nekusimudzira mumunda webioreactors inoenderera mberi, nehunyanzvi hwakadai se kushandisa kamwe chete bioreactors ⇀ kuderedza njodzi yekusvibiswa uye mari yekuchenesa. Mukuwedzera, kuvandudzwa kwe automated bioreactors uye chaiyo-nguva yekutarisa masisitimu ari kuvandudza kugona uye kutonga kwebiotechnological maitiro.

Mune ramangwana, bioreactors inotarisirwa kuita basa rakakosha mune kugadzirwa kwakasimba kwechikafu, simba nemishonga, kubatsira mukugadzirisa matambudziko epasi rose akadai sekushanduka kwemamiriro ekunze uye kuchengetedzwa kwechikafu.

mhedziso

Muchidimbu, bioreactor yakafanana nefekitori diki yezvipembenene. Kuvonga kwavari, tinogona kubudisa zvinhu zvakasiyana-siyana zvinobatsira hutano hwedu, zvokudya uye simba. Kugona kudzora uye kukwenenzvera tsika mamiriro anoita bioreactors chishandiso chakakosha mune yazvino biotechnology. Kana iwe uchifarira nyika yebiotech, bioreactors chinhu chakakosha chemidziyo yakakosha kuziva nezvayo.

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